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iOS/Android Security

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保护技术开发06 - 壳代码移植Native层

前面几篇文章分享了如何在Java层对APK进行加壳,然而通过对现在市场上的第三方壳的分析,没有一家是纯粹使用Java代码实现壳的,即使是第一代壳,因为Java代码的特性,其反编译后的伪代码几乎就是源码,非常容易被逆向分析爱好者们分析出加壳逻辑,所以,从第一代壳开始,所有的壳都是以C和C++来实现壳代码,这样不仅可以实现很多Java实现不了的功能,还能增大脱壳难度

从这一篇文章开始,我们来详细分享如何使用C和C++代码实现第一代壳的自动化加壳机

创建新工程,配置好NDK开发环境,这点如果不是很清楚的同学还请自行搜索如何配置NDK开发环境

目前新版的Android Studio已经支持在创建工程的时候添加Native代码支持,自动化配置环境,挺方便的

源APK我们简单的修改下显示的字符串即可

IMAGE

接下来实现壳

Java层的壳在Java层的Application类里重写attachBaseContext()onCreate(),那么我们在这里依旧是重写这两个方法,只不过是在Native层进行重写,只需要给这两个方法加上native前缀即可

@Override
public native void onCreate();

@Override
protected native void attachBaseContext(Context base);

然后在壳代码里实现这两个方法

JNIEXPORT void JNICALL native_onCreate(JNIEnv *env, jobject jobj) {
}


JNIEXPORT void JNICALL native_attachBaseContext(JNIEnv *env, jobject jobj, jobject ctx) {
}

动态注册两个函数

static JNINativeMethod methods[] = {
        {"attachBaseContext", "(Landroid/content/Context;)V", (void *) native_attachBaseContext},
        {"onCreate", "()V", (void *) native_onCreate},
};


JNIEXPORT jint JNICALL JNI_OnLoad(JavaVM* vm, void* reser) {
    JNIEnv* env = nullptr;
    if (vm->GetEnv((void **) &env, JNI_VERSION_1_6) != JNI_OK) {
        return -1;
    }

    auto clazz = env->FindClass("com/wnagzihxa1n/protectapk/StupApplication");
    if (clazz != nullptr) {
        if (env->RegisterNatives(clazz, methods, 2) >= 0) {
            return JNI_VERSION_1_6;
        } else {
            LOGE("---> Register methods failed");
        }
    }

    return JNI_FALSE;
}

实现native_attachBaseContext()函数,首先要继承父类

// super.attachBaseContext(ctx);
jclass clazz_android_content_ContextWrapper = env->FindClass("android/content/ContextWrapper");
jmethodID methodID_super_attachBaseContext = env->GetMethodID(clazz_android_content_ContextWrapper,
                                                                "attachBaseContext",
                                                                "(Landroid/content/Context;)V");
env->CallNonvirtualVoidMethod(jobj,
                                clazz_android_content_ContextWrapper,
                                methodID_super_attachBaseContext,
                                ctx);

然后获取包名,进而拼接要释放解密后Dex文件的路径

jclass clazz_android_content_Context = env->FindClass("android/content/Context");
jmethodID methodID_getPackageName = env->GetMethodID(clazz_android_content_Context,
                                                        "getPackageName",
                                                        "()Ljava/lang/String;");
jstring jstr_PackageName = (jstring) env->CallObjectMethod(ctx, methodID_getPackageName);
const char* pPackageName = env->GetStringUTFChars(jstr_PackageName, 0);

std::string strPackageName = pPackageName;
std::string cachePath = "/data/data/" + strPackageName;

std::string cachefilePath = cachePath + "/encryptedDex.dex";
std::string cachefileOpt = cachePath + "/encryptedDex.odex";

获取释放的路径后,进行文件的解密释放,这里就不进行加解密操作了,直接释放

extractDexFile(env, jobj, cachefilePath.c_str());

具体实现由AAssetManager提供支持

bool extractDexFile(JNIEnv* env, jobject jobj, const char* szPath) {
    AAssetManager* assetManager;
    if (access(szPath, R_OK)) {
        jclass clazz_StupApplication = env->GetObjectClass(jobj);
        jmethodID methodID_getAssets = env->GetMethodID(clazz_StupApplication,
                                                        "getAssets",
                                                        "()Landroid/content/res/AssetManager;");
        jobject jobj_assetManager = env->CallObjectMethod(jobj, methodID_getAssets);
        assetManager = AAssetManager_fromJava(env, jobj_assetManager);

        if (assetManager == nullptr) {
            LOGE("Not get assetManager");
            return JNI_FALSE;
        }

        AAsset* asset = AAssetManager_open(assetManager, "encryptedDex.dex", AASSET_MODE_STREAMING);
        FILE* fp_encryptedDex = nullptr;
        void* buffer = nullptr;
        if (asset) {
            int readCount = 0;
            fp_encryptedDex = fopen(szPath, "w");
            buffer = malloc(1024);
            while ((readCount = AAsset_read(asset, buffer, 1024)) > 0) {
                fwrite(buffer, readCount, 1, fp_encryptedDex);
            }
            free(buffer);
            fclose(fp_encryptedDex);
            AAsset_close(asset);
        } else {
            LOGE("Not open file encryptedDex.dex");
            return JNI_FALSE;
        }
    }
    return JNI_TRUE;
}

释放完后,进行加载获得一个Dex文件的对象

jstring jstr_cachefilePath = env->NewStringUTF(cachefilePath.c_str());
jstring jstr_cachefileOpt = env->NewStringUTF(cachefileOpt.c_str());

jclass clazz_DexFile = env->FindClass("dalvik/system/DexFile");
jmethodID methodID_loadDex = env->GetStaticMethodID(clazz_DexFile,
                                        "loadDex",
                                        "(Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)Ldalvik/system/DexFile;");

auto jobj_dexFile = env->CallStaticObjectMethod(clazz_DexFile,
                                                methodID_loadDex,
                                                jstr_cachefilePath,
                                                jstr_cachefileOpt,
                                                false);

判断是否成功加载,成功加载后,调用makeDexElements()函数把加载起来的Dex文件添加到dexElements里去

if (jobj_dexFile != nullptr) {
    jmethodID methodID_getClassLoader = env->GetMethodID(clazz_android_content_Context,
                                                            "getClassLoader",
                                                            "()Ljava/lang/ClassLoader;");
    jobject jobj_classloader = env->CallObjectMethod(ctx, methodID_getClassLoader);
    std::vector<jobject>jobj_dexFiles;
    jobj_dexFiles.push_back(jobj_dexFile);

    if (makeDexElements(env, jobj_classloader, jobj_dexFiles) == JNI_TRUE) {
        LOGI("---> Bingo");
    } else {
        LOGE("---> Add the jobj_dexFile to array failed");
    }
} else {
    LOGE("---> Load file \"encryptedDex\" faied");
}

此处需要结合一下源码分析,我们都知道DexClassLoader最终是调用到BaseDexClassLoader

public BaseDexClassLoader(String dexPath, File optimizedDirectory,
        String libraryPath, ClassLoader parent) {
    super(parent);
    this.pathList = new DexPathList(this, dexPath, libraryPath, optimizedDirectory);
}

DexPathList其中有个makeDexElements()函数如下,作用是把加载起来的Dex文件写进一个Element类型数组

private static Element[] makeDexElements(ArrayList<File> files, File optimizedDirectory,
                                            ArrayList<IOException> suppressedExceptions) {
    ArrayList<Element> elements = new ArrayList<Element>();
    for (File file : files) {
        File zip = null;
        DexFile dex = null;
        String name = file.getName();

        if (name.endsWith(DEX_SUFFIX)) {
            try {
                dex = loadDexFile(file, optimizedDirectory);
            } catch (IOException ex) {
                System.logE("Unable to load dex file: " + file, ex);
            }
        } else if (name.endsWith(APK_SUFFIX) || name.endsWith(JAR_SUFFIX)
                || name.endsWith(ZIP_SUFFIX)) {
            zip = file;

            try {
                dex = loadDexFile(file, optimizedDirectory);
            } catch (IOException suppressed) {
                suppressedExceptions.add(suppressed);
            }
        } else if (file.isDirectory()) {
            elements.add(new Element(file, true, null, null));
        } else {
            System.logW("Unknown file type for: " + file);
        }

        if ((zip != null) || (dex != null)) {
            elements.add(new Element(file, false, zip, dex));
        }
    }

    return elements.toArray(new Element[elements.size()]);
}

再看调用这个函数的地方,返回值赋值给dexElements

this.dexElements = makeDexElements(splitDexPath(dexPath), optimizedDirectory, suppressedExceptions);

所以这里我们在把Dex文件加载起来后,需要添加到上面说的dexElements,首先获取原dexElements,然后重构一个新的new_jobj_dexElements,构造好后,替换回去即可

bool makeDexElements(JNIEnv* env, jobject classloader, const std::vector<jobject>& jobj_dexFiles) {
    LOGI("---> In makeDexElements()");

    if (jobj_dexFiles.empty()) {
        return JNI_FALSE;
    }

    jclass clazz_dalvik_system_BaseDexClassLoader = env->FindClass("dalvik/system/BaseDexClassLoader");
    jfieldID filedID_pathList = env->GetFieldID(clazz_dalvik_system_BaseDexClassLoader,
                                                "pathList",
                                                "Ldalvik/system/DexPathList;");
    jobject jfield_pathList = env->GetObjectField(classloader, filedID_pathList);

    jclass clazz_dalvik_system_DexPathList = env->FindClass("dalvik/system/DexPathList");
    jfieldID jfieldID_dexElements = env->GetFieldID(clazz_dalvik_system_DexPathList,
                                                    "dexElements",
                                                    "[Ldalvik/system/DexPathList$Element;");
    jobjectArray jfield_dexElements = (jobjectArray) env->GetObjectField(jfield_pathList, jfieldID_dexElements);

    if (jfield_dexElements != nullptr ) {
        LOGI("Get dexElements");
    }

    jint dexElementCount = env->GetArrayLength(jfield_dexElements);
    jint dexElementNewCount = dexElementCount + jobj_dexFiles.size();

    jclass clazz_dalvik_system_DexPathList$Element = env->FindClass("dalvik/system/DexPathList$Element");
    jobjectArray new_jobj_dexElements = env->NewObjectArray(dexElementNewCount,
                                                            clazz_dalvik_system_DexPathList$Element,
                                                            nullptr);
    for (auto i = 0; i < dexElementCount; i++) {
        env->SetObjectArrayElement(new_jobj_dexElements, i, env->GetObjectArrayElement(jfield_dexElements, i));
    }

    jmethodID methodID_element_init = env->GetMethodID(clazz_dalvik_system_DexPathList$Element,
                                                       "<init>",
                                                       "(Ljava/io/File;ZLjava/io/File;Ldalvik/system/DexFile;)V");
    for (auto i = 0; i < jobj_dexFiles.size(); i++) {
        jobject new_dexElement = env->NewObject(clazz_dalvik_system_DexPathList$Element,
                                                methodID_element_init,
                                                nullptr,
                                                false,
                                                nullptr, jobj_dexFiles[i]);
        env->SetObjectArrayElement(new_jobj_dexElements, dexElementCount + i, new_dexElement);
    }

    env->SetObjectField(jfield_pathList, jfieldID_dexElements, new_jobj_dexElements);

    return JNI_TRUE;
}

最后处理下AndroidManifest.xml,这个要看壳的AndroidManifest.xml怎么写的,如果是抄的源APK,在没有Application的情况下,只需要添加我们的StupApplication即可,由于我这里是后来新建的工程,所以需要指定下activity

<activity android:name="com.wnagzihxa1n.sourceapk.MainActivity">

整个壳的实现大概就是这样,跑起来后,效果如下图

IMAGE